Skylark Books

Necessity and Freedom - Rudolf Steiner Anthroposophy bookNecessity and Freedom
5 lectures by Rudolf Steiner

Rudolf Steiner illuminates the crucial questions of freedom and necessity, guilt and innocence from the perspective of his science of the spirit. He shows how necessity, arising out of the unchangeable past, works in our lives and in nature.

“What was experienced at one time in freedom changes over time into necessity”— just as what was once subjective experience becomes over time an objective element of our being. Steiner demonstrates that only through understanding spiritual reality can we come to a clear understanding of the mechanics of necessity and to the possibility of conscious freedom in the present.

Trans: P. Wehrle (5 lectures, Berlin 25 Jan to 8 Feb 1916; GA166); 124pp
Anthroposophic Press/Rudolf Steiner Press
ISBN: 0 88010 260 8; paperback

See also: Chance, Providence and Necessity


Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) called his spiritual philosophy 'anthroposophy', which he defined as 'the consciousness of one's humanity', and the disciplined methods of studying this he termed ‘spiritual science’.  As a highly developed clairvoyant and spiritual initiate, he spoke from his direct cognition of the spiritual world. However, he did not see his work as religious or sectarian, but rather sought to found a universal 'science of the spirit'.

His many published works (written books and lectures) - which include his research into the spiritual nature of the human being, the evolution of the world and humanity, and methods of personal development - invite readers to develop their own spiritual faculties.  He also provided indications for the renewal of many human activities, including education - both general and special - agriculture, medicine, economics, architecture, science, philosophy, religion and the arts. He wrote some 30 books and delivered over 6000 lectures across Europe, and in 1924 founded the General Anthroposophical Society which today has branches throughout the world.